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Glossary of Terms

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Term Main definition
Tear
Ratio of the amount of top produced to the amount of noil produced during processing.
Tender Wool
Wool that breaks under pressure (less than 32 n/kt) anywhere along the staple which causes problems during processing.
Tensile Strength
The amount of pulling a fibre, yarn, or fabric can withstand before it breaks.
Test Certificate
A certificate for a lot of wool resulting from the testing of samples in accordance with the relevant Test Regulation (eg. IWTO) and Test Specification. Test results may include measurement of yield, diameter, vegetable matter base, staple length and strength.
Tip
The outer extremity of a staple of wool.
Top
A strand of longer fibres that have been straightened, made parallel and separated from the shorter fibres by combing.
Top knot

Wool from the poll (top) of a sheep's head.

Total fleece weight
The weight of the entire raw fleece from the sheep.
Under Skirting
Not removing all the wool faults that affects processing performance from the fleece.
Unskirted
Fleece wool that has not had skirtings removed.
Urine stain
Wool which has been stained by urine from the crutch of ewes or pizzle area of male sheep.
Vegetable Matter
The term to describe all grass seeds and burrs found in wool.
Vegetable Matter Base
Quantity of burrs, grass seeds, thistles, hardheads, straw, chaff and small pieces of stick and bark from the tested sample of wool. Vegetable matter base is expressed as a percentage of the weight of the greasy core sample.
Warp
In weaving, the warp is the set of lengthwise yarns through which the weft is woven. Each individual warp thread in a fabric is called a warp end.
Weaner
A lamb that has been weaned from its mother, or has stopped suckling from its mother (6 to 9 months of age).
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