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Glossary of Terms

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Term Definition
Sample
A small separate part representative of the fleece, lot or consignment of wool.
Scales
1. Make up the outer layer of wool fibre. They are hard, flattened and do not fit together evenly. The exposed edges point towards the tip of the fibre and give rise to felting. 2. Device used for determining weight of a bale, butt or fleece of wool.
Scourable
Wool that can be washed clean of all impurities and colour.
Scoured Wool
Wool that has been washed, usually in a series of bowls, by the use of alkali, soap and water of varying temperatures. This process removes the dirt, grease and suint from the wool.
Scouring
Cleaning raw wool and removing such impurities as dirt, sweat, and grease by washing. Fabric is also scoured to remove impurities from weaving, singing, and carbonising.
Sebaceous gland
Gland associated with the wool follicle that produces wax to the fibre.
Second Cuts
Wool shorn from the sheep by the shearer for the second time during shearing, short in length.
Seedy
Wool containing grass seeds.
Serrations
Invisible projections on the wool fibre caused by overlaying cells that allows fibres to cling to one another.
Shanks
Wool from the hock area (lower legs) of sheep. Shanks must be kept completely separate from all other lines as they contain medulated (coarse hollow fibres) that cause serious problems in the dying process.
Shearing
Removing the fleece from a sheep with electric or hand shears.
Shearing Contractor
Person who employs members of the shearing team and contracts with woolgrower to shear the clip.
Shearing Team
All staff employed to work in a wool harvesting team.
Shedding Breeds
Introduced breeds of meat sheep that self-shed fleeces that contain pigmented and medullated fibres. These wool must be kept separate from all other lines (examples include: Damara, Dorper).
Sheep-O
A term/call by shearers to the penner up to fill up their catching pen
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