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Glossary of Terms

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Term Definition

Leasing of grazing rights of a paddock which is owned by another person.

A method of measuring the mean fibre diameter of a sample of wool in which a test specimen (a measured mass of the scoured, dried and carded sample or a measured mass of silver), after exposure to a conditioning atmosphere, is compressed to a fixed volume and a current of air is passed through it. The rate of flow is then adjusted so that the pressure drop across the sample equals the predetermined value, or the pressure drop across the sample is adjusted until the air flow equals a predetermined value. The rate of flow in the first case or the pressure difference in the second case, is an indicator of the mean fibre diameter of the wool in the sample.
The largest neck fold of the Merino sheep.
Area of Origin
Code which indicates the state and area within Australia from which a wool clip originates.
ATLAS (Automatic Tester of Length and Strength)
A computer-controlled instrument which measures the staple length, staple strength and position of break of individual staples. In operation, a continuous belt conveys each staple between an array of lights and an array of photocells, which detects the ends of the staple and enables the length (in millimeters, mm) to be measured. The staple is then grasped by two sets of jaws and broken. The force required is measured in Newtons. The two pieces of the broken staple are individually collected and weighed and, from the masses, lengths and core test yield, the staple linear density (thickness) is calculated and expressed in kilotex; the staple strength is expressed as Newtowns / kilotex (N/ktex). The masses of the two pieces are also used to calculate the position of break.
Australian Superfine Merino
Quality endorsement logo denoting wool garments that contain fibre which is 18.5 micron or finer. Licensed by The Woolmark Company.
Australian Wool Exchange Ltd, the national body responsible for market reporting of wool auction sales in Australia, woolclasser registration and clip preparation standards.
Australian Wool testing Authority Ltd is responsible for the independent testing of raw wool and issuance of test certificates.
The imaginary line along the back of animal, following the course of its spine. The application of a treatment against external parasites (mainly lice) on the skin of a sheep along the spine; usually off-shears within 7 days of wool harvesting.
Fleece wool from the back of the sheep ? maybe removed if wasty or dusty.

A rectangular container (pack) into which shorn wool is compressed. Pack is of nylon construction and pressed to specifications set in the AWEX Code of Practice for the Preparation of Australian Wool Clips (Min. Weight 120kg - Max. Weight 204kg  Max. length 1.25 metres).

Bale Fastener
Metal clasp used to close a bale of wool.
Bale Hook
A tool used to help grasp bales of wool while handling.
Baling Twine
Made of synthetic polypropylene and one of the major contaminants of wool.
Bar bale
A bale of wool containing two or more types of wool separated by paper divisions.
Bathurst Burr
AWEX ID VM type. The hooked spines strongly attach to the Bathurst Burr to wool. However, the burr is easily removed during processing because the spines break off. In many cases these burrs float off in the scouring process.
Belly Wool
Wool shorn from the stomach of the sheep.
Synonyms - Bellies,
Dedicated storage section found in shearing sheds and wool stores for a line of wool prior to pressing.
Fibres that grow from one staple to another holding the fleece together.
The principle of safeguarding the health of livestock and preventing the introduction of new diseases or infections. Measures taken to maintain the health of a flock / herd. Related term: quarantine.
Black Wool
Dark pigmented wool (grey or black).
A textile containing two or more different fibres, variants of the same fibre or different colours and grades of the same fibre. Merino may be blended with cotton, silk, nylon, polyester, or viscose.
The stroke the shearer makes with the handpiece when removing the wool from the sheep.
Area used for shearing the sheep in a shearing shed.
Bogan Flea (F)
AWEX ID VM Type. Bogan Flea initially forms as a spherical cluster of many seeds, about 5mm in diameter. Once on the sheep the cluster usually breaks up causing dense matting of the wool.
When different mobs of sheep are mixed together.

(1) The markings on a bale of wool used for identification. (2) Mark placed on the sheep for identification using branding fluid  needs to be removed from fleece as it prevents uniform dye uptake during processing.

Break (or window) in wool
A temporary interference with the growth of the wool, causing a marked thinning or cessation of wool growth of all or a proportion of the fibre population, and producing distinct (often visible) weakness in one part of the staple. A window or clear break in the wool is an extreme form of low staple strength and may be caused by the same factors causing low staple strength, for example, sudden changes in pasture, lack of feed or water, sickness, lambing or faulty dipping.
Synonyms - Window
This is the area around the back of the sheep's tail and down the back of the hind legs. Breech wool is removed during crutching to prevent fly-strike.
Synonyms - Britch
The area of the sheep immediately in front of the front legs.
A trade term used to describe the best wool of skirtings, having the characteristics of fleece wool.
Broken mouth
A sheep whose front teeth are broken or missing entirely.
Specialised broom or floor sweep used by a wool handler.
Synonyms - Paddle
Bulk Class
A bale of wool consigned to bulk classing that contains two or more different types of wool.
A term applied to wool containing certain seed pods, mainly of the medicago species. Wool carrying a percentage of burr. Light burr can be removed by the card or comb, whereas wool carrying heavy burr or vegetable matter may be carbonised prior to carding.
A wool pack containing greasy wool weighing less than the minimum bale weight (eg. 120kg.) packed down by hand.
Butt holder
Frame used to hold a wool pack to be used as a butt.
The removal of vegetable matter from wool fibre using acid solution. These are usually very burry wools, from which the vegetable fault cannot economically be removed by mechanical methods. This is followed by baking and crushing to remove the dissolved vegetable matter.
Carding wool or types
Wool suitable for the woollen system of yarn production where wool is carded but not combed. It is shorter (less than 40mm) than combing or worsted trade wools.

1. A class made for lower grade fleeces. 2. A sheep that has been lying down and unable to get up for a period of time.

Cast for age
A sheep rejected from the flock due to old age.
Removing the testicles from a male sheep.
Printed list, prepared by the selling broker, showing the lot number, owner's brand, test results, description of the wool and the number of bales in each lot. Catalogues are supplied to buyers for valuing purposes and to growers when they inspect their wool.
Catching pen
Pen adjoining the board where the shearer catches their sheep prior to shearing.
Clarity or evenness of the crimp or wave in a staple of wool.
The ramp down which a sheep slides into the count-out pen after being shorn.
Matching or grading wool into similar lines for marketing by the woolclasser.
Clean Colour
The colour of wool after scouring. Clean colour is measured in terms of brightness and yellowness, both of which can affect dyeing potential.
The total amount of wool shorn on a property in one year.
Code of Practice
Industry agreed minimum standards for the Preparation of the Australian Wool Clip.
Instrument used to determine the colour of wool by measuring the tri-stimulus values of the sample.
A process performed after scouring, carding and gilling to remove most of the short fibre (noil), neps and foreign matter, leaving the longer fibres lying parallel to the direction of the sliver. The product, after two more gillings, is called top.
Combing wool
Wool suitable for conversion to yarn on the worsted system. Generally, it is Merino wool having a staple length of about 40mm or greater.
Comfort Factor
The percentage of fibres in a distribution that are finer than 30 micron in diameter.

The amount of moisture (16%) absorbed by dried wool from standard atmosphere referred to as regain.

The uniform distribution of all the fibre characteristics within each lock and throughout the entire fleece.

Foreign items found in wool that affects processing that falls into two categories: (1) Fibrous - baling twine, dogs hair, feathers, fertilizer bags etc. These contaminants behave just like the wool fibre and end up woven into finished fabrics and (2) Hard - metal or hard substances such as bale hooks, tools, tyre levers, timber etc. which if undetected cause costly damage to early stage processing machinery that usually require production lines to close while being repaired.

Core sampling
Removing fibre specimens for testing by inserting a hollow tube into each bale.
Core Testing
Consists of testing a known quantity of wool for yield, fibre diameter and vegetable matter content and type; the sample is extracted from a bale of greasy wool, by means of a core of tube. Core tests are usually conducted prior to sale (pre-sale).
Wool that has become matted.

Refers to the spinning capacity of wool ie. The number of hanks of yarn (worsted hank 512 metres long, woollen 256metres  which can be spun from 0.453kg (1 Lbs or Pound) of wool top when spun to its fullest capacity.

Count-out pen
Pen in which shearers releases the sheep after it has been shorn or crutched.
The natural waviness of the wool fibre. Varies with the diameter of the fibre, the finer the wool the closer the crimp or wave formation.
Crimp Definition
The degree of alignment of the crimp waves within a staple.
Crimp Frequency
The number of crimp waves per centimetre of staple length. Coefficient of variation of crimp frequency refers to the variation in frequency between staples within a lot.
The result of crossing two different breeds of sheep. Generally applied to the progeny of two distinct sheep breeds, in Australia it is often that of a British breed and a Merino.
The area on a sheep around the anus.

Refers to the removal of wool from around the tail and between the rear legs of a sheep. It can also refer to removing wool from the heads of sheep (wigging) or the pizzle area of male sheep. This has a twofold purpose - minimisation of stain and as a control measure for possible flystrike.

An inferior sheep that is removed from the flock.
The inverse of the radius of arc of a segment of a fibre snippet. Curvature is a measure of crimp expressed as degrees per millimetre.
Cut Out
The end of a particular mob of sheep within a flock or completion of shearing.
The outer layer of scales on the wool fibre.
Wool encrusted by faeces (dung).
Dark & Medulated Fibres
Pigmented fibres usually black or grey as well as any fibres affected by stain. Medullated fibres are coarse hollow fibres that cause serious problems in the dying process that are generally found on the hocks and briskets of sheep.
Dark and / or Medullated Fibre Risk (DMFR) Scheme
A voluntary vendor declaration for the risk of dark and / or medullated fibre contamination of Merino wool was introduced to Australia in July 2004, with the results reported in sale catalogues and test certificates. The risk scheme is based on the CSIRO concept of a stained and pigmented fibre risk factor for Merinos (DMFR), but extends it to include the dark and/or medullated fibre risk incurred when merino sheep come in contact with "exotic" sheep or their crosses. Exotic sheep are the breeds Awassi, Damara, Dorper and Karakul.
Synonyms - DMFR
Compactness or density of fibre growth over the skin area.
Dermatitis (Dermo)
A fungal condition that produces wool that is matted or clumped together.
Synonyms - Dermo
Shortening of the tail of a lamb.
Dividing animals into separate groups.
Animal remedies administered by mouth (i.e. orally) by the grower. Usually refers to worm remedies (syn. anthelmintics), but could also mean nutritional supplements or other medicines.
The driving of a mob/flock of sheep along a road or stock route.
Dry ewe
Ewe without a lamb at foot.
Dual purpose
Sheep suited to both wool and meat production.
The process of compressing two bales (double dump) or three bales (tri-pack) of greasy wool into the approximate size of one bale and restraining them with steel bands for shipping/transport.
Ear mark / tag

Distinguishing mark of an owner clipped out of a sheep?s ear; identification disc placed in the sheep's ear.

Synonyms - Ear Tag
Valuable property found in wool - being able to return to its original length after stretching or compression.
Relates to the uniformity of the fleece principally in terms of quality number and length.
A female sheep.
Not occurring in Australia.
Exotic Breeds
The term applied to breeds of sheep introduced to Australia, including Awassi, Damara, Dorper and Karakul. They are characterised by a fleece that seasonally sheds dark and/or medullated fibres, and as such have been given a high AWEX Breed Risk Rating of 5. Contact between exotic breeds and the Merino sheep increases the risk of dark and/or medullated fibre contamination of Merino wool.
The person in large shearing contracting teams responsible for the maintenance of the shearing equipment.

On the outside (skin) of the animal's body. Usually refers to parasites, such as ticks, lice and blowfly. Related term: Ectoparasite - external parasite

A butt of a bale.
1. Contamination, especially vegetable matter, in greasy or semi-processed wool; 2. Wool containing unwanted classing traits.
An ancient technique that produces a non-woven sheet of matted Merino wool. Felt is produced with interlocking of fibres and may be produced from woven or knitted substrate, or directly from the loose fibres.
Wild. Refers to domestic animals which are now running wild, such as goats, dogs, cats and pigs.
A single strand of wool within a fleece. A unit of matter characterised by having a length at least 100 times its diameter or width.
Fibre diameter (fineness)

Measured by Laserscan or an airflow instrument, and reported in micrometers and refered to as micron or MFD (Mean Fibre Diameter).

Fibre diameter distribution
The distribution of the fibre diameter in a wool sample. Distribution can be expressed as a frequency table or a frequency histogram with data grouped into class intervals of one micron, and integer micron values as midpoints of the class intervals. The results may also be expressed as a standard deviation, coefficient of variation and the percentage of fibres coarser than a given value such as 30 micron. Fibre diameter distribution is measured by both the Sirolan Laserscan and the OFDA instruments.
Fine Wool
Merino wool that has a diameter range of 18.6 to 20.5 micron.

Removed from the sheep, it is the main body of wool that forms the sheep's coat.

Fleece rot
Bacterial discolouration of wool.
A large grouping of sheep that have been run under the same farm management conditions for the entire wool growing season, for example, they have been crutched and shorn at the same time. A flock may comprise a number of mobs for one wool growing enterprise.
Flyblown / flystrike
Sheep or wool infested or affected with or by maggots.
Synonyms - Flystrike
Free, Nearly Free (FNF)
A term that is applied to wool that is free or nearly free of vegetable fault. Typically the percentage of vegetable matter base is less than one percent.
Greasy, sweat pieces of wool found on the outer edge of the fleece.
Full mouth
Sheep over four years of age.
Long hair like fibres.
Period of pregnancy, for sheep it is approx. 150 days.
Gilling is the blending together of card slivers with the direction of feed alternated to make a final sliver suitable for spinning. In worsted processing, three gilling operations are usually carried out prior to combing and two after combing.
Grab Sampling
A method of taking a representative samples from wool bales. A jaw is driven by a machine into the wool bale and when withdrawn brings out a sample of fibres. Grab samples can be used to measure length and strength.
The classification system used to describe raw wool.
A fatty, pale yellow wax that coats the raw wool fibre and yields lanolin.
Greasy wool
Wool as it is shorn from the sheep, before any processing.
Gun shearer
A shearer who shears more the 200 sheep per day.
The quality of fabric, yarn or fibre assessed by the reaction obtained from the sense of touch. Comprising the judgment of roughness, smoothness, harshness, pliability, thickness, softness, etc.
Mechanical instrument used for the removal of wool from a sheep.
Yarns which are spun by hand using a spinning wheel or electric spinner.
Hauteur (H, mm)

Hauteur is mean fibre length in a top. Hauteur is usually regarded as a numerical average (i.e.. Assumes no relationship between fibre length and diameter), but is actually a length-biased distribution. The variation in the length is expressed as CVH%.

Young sheep approx. 12-18 months of age. In Australia, hogget wool comes from young sheep that are usually shorn as lambs, with the first fleece then known as hogget wool.
Hunger Fine
Term applied to wool which is unnaturally fine, due to under-nourishment over an extended period.
Readily absorbs moisture from the atmosphere.
In lamb
Refers to a pregnant ewe.

Front teeth on the sheep's lower jaw used for cutting.

Capable of infecting an animal and causing disease. Infectious agents are bacteria and viruses. Footrot and Ovine Johnes Disease are examples of infectious diseases. Infectious diseases can be transmitted by direct contact between animals (contagious diseases), or by a carrier such as an insect.

Inside the animal's body. Usually refers to parasites, such as worms (roundworms, fluke, tapeworm).

International Wool Textile Organisation. An international forum for establishing standardised test procedures (IWTO Test Specifications), regulations governing the use of these procedures (IWTO Regulations), and procedures for arbitrating disputes over commercial transactions involving raw wool, wool sliver and wool yarns (the IWTO Blue Book). IWTO is pivotal in providing a technical and commercial framework for international and intra-national trade involving wool. Representation within IWTO is via National Committees appointed by the Wool Industry associations within member countries.
A method for applying under pressure a chemical solution remedy against external parasites using a jetting wand.
Placing of the rams with the ewes.
Synonyms - Mating

Wool from around the sheep's jaw which can be matted or seedy.

Short white (may be black) hair fibres found on the face and legs of sheep.
A protein substance which is the chief component of a wool fibre.
A method of constructing fabric by interlocking a series of loops of one or more yarns.
Young sheep from new born to 12 months of age (or when the first 2 permanent teeth erupt).
Lamb boards

Two wooden or plastic moulded boards used to pick up lamb's wool and locks.

Lamb's wool

The first clip of wool shorn from lambs up to eight months old. Merino lamb's wool is soft, has a curly tip and used for fine grade fabrics.

Also known as wool grease; this substance is a secretion from the sebaceous glands of the sheep. Often used for cosmetic applications.
Let go Pen
An individual pen into which each shearer to releases their shorn or crutched sheep.
Synonyms - Count out Pen
Life cycle
The life history, usually of a parasite, which goes through different stages eg. adult, egg, larva / nymph, pupae.

Each different grade of wool is separated and referred to as a 'line of wool' e.g. A line of Fleece, Bellies or Locks.

A small, approximately finger-size clump of wool that tends to stay together when shorn from the sheep. Sometimes referred to as a staple.
Very short wool cut from the fleece by shearers. Either short wool from around the points or second cuts caused when shearers lift the handpiece off the skin and then shear the short fires left on the skin to tidy up.
A device or machine for weaving cloth.
Lot, Sale Lot or Line of Wool
Any number of similar bales of wool, prepared for sale as a single parcel in accordance with accepted trade practices.
Synonyms - Sale Lot, Line
A remedy used to kill lice on animals.
Lousy / Lice
Wool from sheep that have been affected by lice. The lice make the sheep itchy so they rub against trees and fences and this make the wool become matted and straggly. The wool smells and turns yellowish.
The light reflective quality of a fibre or fabric exhibited in shine and gloss.
Mean Fibre Diameter
The average diameter (thickness) of a group of fibres from a sheep. Expressed in microns(
Medium Wool
Merino wool that has a mid-range fibre diameter, usually between 20.6 and 22.5 micron.
Fibres which have a medulla, that is, are hollow down the centre. In wool fibres, this creates a different appearance to those which are unmedullated, and effects the dyeing properties.
The Merino strains of sheep are the dominant breed of apparel wool sheep grown in Australia.
A unit of measurement used in assessing the diameter of a fibre which equals one millionth of a metre.
A group of sheep, usually run under the same conditions for the full wool growing season eg. a mob of ewes that have been run in the same paddock, drenched and mated/lambed at the same time.
Teeth on either sides of the top and bottom jaws used for grinding food.

The plate used to compress the wool within the press. It is moved up and down manually by bars or by hydraulics; technical name is Platen

Natural fibre
Fibre obtained from animal, vegetable or mineral sources, as opposed to those made from chemicals.
Part of a fleece from the neck region of the sheep.
The short fibre left over from combing wool.
Term for all other lines of wool other than Fleece ie. Pieces, Bellies, Locks etc. Wool that does not meet the wool classer's standards for main lines.

Shorn sheep immediately after shearing. Remedies registered for off-shears treatment may be applied for up to 7 days after shearing.

Optical-based Fibre Diameter Analyser
An instrument for measuring fibre diameter mean and distribution using an automated microscope and image analysis techniques.
Synonyms - OFDA
Over Skirting
Removing good fleece wool and down grading that wool into pieces lines while skirting.

Any wool that has more than 12 month's growth.


An organism living at the expense of another (the host). Can be classified in various ways, such as external and internal.

Sheep skin with little or no wool on it.
Pen Stain

Fleece wool discoloured by sheep's faeces while the sheep are being penned. Usually a dark green colour.

Penner Up
Member of a shearing team responsible for penning the sheep.
A breed of sheep developed by breeders George Peppin and Thomas Shaw in the late 1850s that constitutes a significant portion of the Australian Merino flock.
A chemical used to kill a pest. Crop pesticides can be herbicides (weed killers) insecticides (insect killers) or fungicides (fungus/mould killers). On animals, pesticides usually refers to remedies used against external parasites.

Male sheep's penis. Urine stained wool found on bellies from around the pizzle area of male sheep is known as pizzle stain.

Plunge dipping
A method for applying a remedy against external parasites by plunging the animal into a vessel / tank containing the chemical.
A sheep with no horns.
A major contaminant in the wool industry commonly used as hay baling twine dyed in different colours eg. black, red.
Position of Break
An indication of where a staple breaks during extension, determined by comparing the masses of clean wool in the broken portions of the staple. It does not imply that a break exists in the staple. Reported as the percentage of breaks in each third of a staple, viz. tip, middle or base.
Synonyms - POB
A sheep at the top of its condition.
1. The standard of excellence or desirability of a sheep or its fleece; 2. Quality number may be specified by the term 'count'.
The procedure of separating sick or infected animals from healthy ones (until they have convalesced or are removed from the premises), or isolating new introductions from the resident flock until their health status has been established. A basic biosecurity procedure.
Name for accommodation for shearing staff provided at camp out sheds.
A chalky like substance used to identify sheep.
A male sheep with its sexual organs intact used for breeding.
Raw wool
Greasy wool in natural state before scouring.
The weight of water able to be absorbed by a fibre as a percentage of its dry weight. Wool can hold up to 30% water in regain, without feeling wet. Standard regain for trade purposes is 16%.
Leftover chemical remaining in / on an animal after application / administration of a remedy. Can relate to food (meat, milk), or wool. Residues are important as a potential health hazard to humans or environmental contaminant.

The ability to withstand the action of a remedy which is (or was previously) effective against a significant portion of the population. Can refer to bacteria ('antibiotic resistance') or parasites (e.g. anthelmintic resistance, lousicide resistance). Resistance develops over time after the bacteria or parasites have been exposed to repeated treatments with the remedy.

The amount of noil produced during combing expressed as a percentage of the total top and noil produced.
Person working in a shearing shed as a board person picking up and throwing fleeces.
Synonyms - Roustabout
Two hour work period in the shearing shed.
A small separate part representative of the fleece, lot or consignment of wool.
1. Make up the outer layer of wool fibre. They are hard, flattened and do not fit together evenly. The exposed edges point towards the tip of the fibre and give rise to felting. 2. Device used for determining weight of a bale, butt or fleece of wool.
Wool that can be washed clean of all impurities and colour.
Scoured Wool
Wool that has been washed, usually in a series of bowls, by the use of alkali, soap and water of varying temperatures. This process removes the dirt, grease and suint from the wool.
Cleaning raw wool and removing such impurities as dirt, sweat, and grease by washing. Fabric is also scoured to remove impurities from weaving, singing, and carbonising.
Sebaceous gland
Gland associated with the wool follicle that produces wax to the fibre.
Second Cuts
Wool shorn from the sheep by the shearer for the second time during shearing, short in length.
Wool containing grass seeds.
Invisible projections on the wool fibre caused by overlaying cells that allows fibres to cling to one another.
Wool from the hock area (lower legs) of sheep. Shanks must be kept completely separate from all other lines as they contain medulated (coarse hollow fibres) that cause serious problems in the dying process.
Removing the fleece from a sheep with electric or hand shears.
Shearing Contractor
Person who employs members of the shearing team and contracts with woolgrower to shear the clip.
Shearing Team
All staff employed to work in a wool harvesting team.
Shedding Breeds
Introduced breeds of meat sheep that self-shed fleeces that contain pigmented and medullated fibres. These wool must be kept separate from all other lines (examples include: Damara, Dorper).
A term/call by shearers to the penner up to fill up their catching pen
Shorn Wool

Wool as it is when shorn from the sheep, before any processing or washing to remove natural grease and dust. 

Synonyms - Greasy wool,Raw wool
Shower dipping
A method for applying a remedy against external parasites by spraying the chemical onto them in a confined space.
Sirolan Laserscan
An instrument to measure mean fibre diameter and fibre diameter distribution by detection of shadows in a laser beam via snippets being carried through the beam in a liquid.
Skin Pieces
Small pieces of skin adhering to the wool which have been accidentally removed during the shearing process.
Removal of sweat locks and other processing faults present from the outer section of fleece under instruction from the woolclasser eg. stained, unusable, or undesirable portions of a fleece.

Slipe refers to wool removed or pulled from the pelt of a sheep by hand or by a machine after the pelt has been treated with a chemical depilatory.

A sliver is the bundle of parallel fibres produced in early stages of fibre preparation, principally, the output from carding.
Very short pieces of fibre, typically 2mm long, which have been cut to measure fibre diameter and related properties.
Sound Wool

Wool fibres that do not break during the manufacturing process  Wool that has a staple strength of 35 newtons per kilotex and above is usually deemed as sound.

The process of making yarn from fibre by inserting twist.
Male sheep that has not been castrated properly.
Synonyms - Ram Stag

Wool fibres that are affected by various contaminants that can't be removed by scouring and are permanently discoloured. e.g. urine, pen, water and blood stain.

Section of a shearing board allocated and used by one shearer.

A group of individual wool fibres clumped together within a fleece.

Staple base
the bottom of the wool staple that represents the portion of the wool staple where it has been cut directly adjacent to the skin surface.
Wool lacking in character and possessing a steely or glassy sheen. It is produced on pastures deficient in trace elements such as copper.
Plastic or metal template used for branding bales.
A subjective term generally referring to a combination of characteristics of wool, which include brightness, dust penetration, crimp frequency and definition, tip shape and fibre density.
Suburban Shed
A shearing shed close enough to travel to and from on a daily basis.
Sudoriferous gland
Gland situated near the base of the wool follicle that excretes sweat or suint.
Excretion from sweat glands of the sheep, which is deposited on the wool fibres.
Sweat Locks
Wool fibres encrusted with black heavy conditioned crease from the sweat glands of sheep often referred to as fribs.
A "man-made" fabric produced from a chemical compound.
Tally Book
A booked used to record the number of sheep shorn by each individual shearer (tally) used to determine wages.
The weight of the empty wool pack, approx. 2kgs.
Ratio of the amount of top produced to the amount of noil produced during processing.
Tender Wool
Wool that breaks under pressure (less than 32 n/kt) anywhere along the staple which causes problems during processing.
Tensile Strength
The amount of pulling a fibre, yarn, or fabric can withstand before it breaks.
Test Certificate
A certificate for a lot of wool resulting from the testing of samples in accordance with the relevant Test Regulation (eg. IWTO) and Test Specification. Test results may include measurement of yield, diameter, vegetable matter base, staple length and strength.
The outer extremity of a staple of wool.
A strand of longer fibres that have been straightened, made parallel and separated from the shorter fibres by combing.
Top knot

Wool from the poll (top) of a sheep's head.

Total fleece weight
The weight of the entire raw fleece from the sheep.
Under Skirting
Not removing all the wool faults that affects processing performance from the fleece.
Fleece wool that has not had skirtings removed.
Urine stain
Wool which has been stained by urine from the crutch of ewes or pizzle area of male sheep.
Vegetable Matter
The term to describe all grass seeds and burrs found in wool.
Vegetable Matter Base
Quantity of burrs, grass seeds, thistles, hardheads, straw, chaff and small pieces of stick and bark from the tested sample of wool. Vegetable matter base is expressed as a percentage of the weight of the greasy core sample.
In weaving, the warp is the set of lengthwise yarns through which the weft is woven. Each individual warp thread in a fabric is called a warp end.
A lamb that has been weaned from its mother, or has stopped suckling from its mother (6 to 9 months of age).
Making cloth by interlacing yarns at right angles according to a predetermined pattern.
Yarns running width ways in woven fabrics.
Male sheep that has been castrated. The majority of male sheep on a farm are wethers.
Wool is shorn from around the eyes and face. This wool is usually combined with the second cuts and short crutchings to form locks.
Synonyms - Wigs
The fibres covering the skin of a sheep.
Wool Away
Call made by shearer to wool handler to remove the shorn fleece from the shearing stand.
Wool Base
Is the dry weight of wool fibre free from impurities.
Wool Book
Book for recording wool bale information including number, content, weight and other pertinent information. This is maintained by the wool presser under direction of the woolclasser.
Wool Broker
A marketing agent who sells greasy wool on behalf of a client.
Wool Buyer
Person engaged in the buying of wool.
Wool Handler
A key member of a shearing team that works on the shearing board or wool table under the supervision of the woolclasser.
Wool Harvesting
The whole operation from shearing to baling the wool for sale.
Wool Pack
Specifically designed container made of nylon to pack and transport wool.
Wool Press
A machine used to compress wool into a bale, can be manual, electric or hydraulic.
Wool Presser
A member of a shearing team who responsible for the pressing and branding of bales.
Wool Room
The dedicated area within a shearing shed where fleeces are skirted and classed.
Wool Table
Table made of battens onto which the fleeces are thrown for skirting and rolling.
A person registered by the Australian Wool Exchange Ltd employed to class wool.
Member of a shearing team responsible for classing the clip and supervising the wool handlers. Woolclassers are registered with the Australian Wool Exchange.
The owner of the sheep that are shorn.
Bulky and uneven yarn made from shorter wool fibres, and the fabric made from such yarns.
Woollen System
A method of yarn production from wool fibres that have been carded, but not combed or gilled. The fibres are not as well aligned as in the worsted system. Wool used for the woollen system are called carding types, which generally have a shorter fibre length than those used for the worsted system.
Firm-textured, compactly twisted woollen yarn made from long fibres, and the fabric made from such yarn. Suitable for dresses and suits.
Fabrics produced by interlacing yarns.
A continuous strand of fibres twisted or otherwise held together.
The amount of clean wool that is derived from greasy wool after scouring, expressed as a percentage.
The combination of grease and sweat on the wool fibre
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